Brief description of P-18MH2 radar
Due to its meter wavelenght range, the radar is able to detect aircrafts using stealth technology. The radar spare parts base is based on the latest commercial off-the-shelf items. Transmitter is solid state type based on pulse-compression principle. Test and diagnostic equipments are built in. The modernization improves the surveillance probability, the path of air targets is automatically tracked. The station is able to recieve data from other radars, the informatioon exchange between radars is based on agreed exchange protocol. The radar requires low maintenance, in case of newly built-in units the mean time between failures level is high (approx. 12.000 operating hours).
Figure 1.: Remote workstation
Description of modernization implemented on P-18 long range locator by
HM Arzenál Zrt.
The radar has newly developed hardware. The frequency range was extended and the operational frequency is increased from 4 to 41, allowing the immediate automatic frequency tuning.
The transmitter and reciever units consist of only solid state elements. The transmitter consists of modular systems, which greatly facilitates the correction of possible failiures.
In the new radar station, number of vehicles are reduced from 4 to 2: equipment vehicle, antenna vehicle.
An aggregator is integrated in the equipment vehicle, which provides the radar’s smooth operation in case of power failiure using an uninterruptible power supply.
Control and display unit
The P-18MH2 is a two-dimensional radar, which automatically defines the azimuth and range. The third parameter can be provided by a modern locator height-finder. The parametres of the transmitted signal and the parameters of the reflected, processed signal, the secondary signal display, which already takes into consideration the displacement and the speed of the target point, appears on ARM-0 and the remote ARM-1 workstation.
As an option recognition system can be used, in automatic or semi automatic mode, depending on the importance of the national origin of flying objects for the users. The current status of the airspace is documented automatically, in offline and online mode.The task of CDU is to establish the man-machine interface between the operator and the radar. This unit is responsible for the switch on/off of the radar, the operation mode selecting, control of several radar units and displays analogue air picture and synthetic radar information on a single interface, furthermore, provides objective control functions. The personal computer-based equipment is user-friendly and perspicuous, the whole radar picture can be seen on the display interface and the operator can get a broad picture of operation of the radar.
Figure 2: CDU – Control and Display Unit
Control and display unit provides the followings:
- continuous, automatic monitoring of the parameters of radar system;
- automatic daily control of the effectiveness of the radar according to the basic parameters, with status designation;
- data service about the current parameters of the radar equipment at the request of the operator;
- automatic search and localization of the failure’s location, up to 1-3 basic element replacement, in the transmitter unit up to 1 element;
- forecast of the equipment’s technical condition for a certain period;
- automatic data service for the radar’s personnel regarding to the repair and technical servicing of the equipment;
- control of the serviceability of removable blocks, units (moduls), standard cells;
- automatic data recording as for the controlled parameters, the equipment’s faliures and malfunctions;
- register of the detected air objects’ logs and the parameters experienced during the operational control of the radar equipment, during at least 72 hours with time indication;
- register of the operator’s activity, verbal information and information displayed on the screen, with time indication;
- register of the results of determination of state origin of the air object and register of the recognition system’s operational modes (optional);
- formatting the selected registered data to a tabular format with time indication;
- transferring the registered data to the external (FLASH) magnetic device;
- replay of the recorded information for analysis in real time period and with quick time tracking.
The mathematical software contains a set of mathematical methods, models, algorithms and their descritption, that aim to solve the following tasks:
- increasing the efficiency of detecting and tracking of air objects;
- increasing the security of the radar from the effects of radio interference, and the destruction on the radar radiance of the self-directed weapon;
- funciton monitoring and the forecast of the technical condition of the radar;
- automatic data collection and its transmission concerning the faults of the radar equipment;
- the mapping and documentation of the information during all operational modes of the P-18MH2 radar;
- functional control autonomously;
- demo and training capability
The modernized receiver and signal processing unit
The modernized receiver and signal processing unit provides the low-level signals for the strenghtening and mixing and the adjusted bandwidth as well. The receiver signal processing is microprocessor-based. The local oscillator has been replaced by an electronic tuner. The receiver is fully digital. Every receiver mode is implemented purely by software mode, so the equipment need less time for setting and maintenance. Operational modes can be set up by using a software. The digital unit is a control system at the same time. Each unit evaluates continuously the incoming signals, if it detects an abnormality, it gives an alert.
Modernized transmitter unit
The transmitter unit is a completely newly developed solid state system based on pulse-compression principle.
Results of modernization
The P-18MH2 radar is protected against pulse- and active jamming. The jamming situation is visibly displayed on the operator’s indicator. Protection against active jamming is achived through broadening of processing system and through automatic frequency tuning. Protection against passive jamming is achived through the digital Moving Target Indicator system.
Data is exchanged with other radars and with the remote workstation by using ASTERIX protocol.
Figure 3.: Transmitter unit
Requirements for the operation modes
The radar provides the following operation modes:
- „Combat" – radar equipment are switched on, ready to provide all combat functions;
- „Stand-by" – the radar is switched on, except the transmitters. The monitoring of a signal disturbance situation and the PAP direction search are provided.
Time to change from „Stand-by” mode to „Combat” mode is not more than 5 sec.
- „Function test" – automatic control of the radar combat readiness;
- „Diagnostics" – automatic examination of faults with the test programs of the radar;
- „Training” – This operation mode provides the „Combat” training of the operators with simulating the air situation;
- „Maintenance" – possibility of centralization, the computerised inventory can be modernized and developed at least in 30% by the ecexuted algorithms.
Main technical parameters of P-18MH2 radar
- • Frequency range: 140-180 MHz
- Measured coordinates: azimuth, range
- Instrumented and practical (min-max) detection range: 4-200 / 8-400 km
- Scanned area, velocity, azimuth: 3/6/arcmin
- Distance measurement accuracy: 180/400m,
in azimuth : 0,5°
- Resolution capability:
- range: 350 m
- in azimuth: 8°
- Pulse performance of the transmitter system: min. 8 kW (pulse-compression)
- Signal types and periods:
- FM near zone: 21 microsec.
- FM remote zone: 250 microsec.
- LFM remote zone: 250 microsec.
- Noise level coefficient of the reciever unit: max 1,5 dB
- Number of trackable paths: min. 250
- The modernized radar is equipped with the following protection against jamming:
- passive jamming
- active jamming
- Pulse jamming can be completely eliminated
- Protection against active noise jamming achived as follows:
- Automatic visualization of the noise jamming and the screening results at the operator’s workstation
- Automatic frequency agility 0,1 MHz discreet
- Wide operation range of the digital reciever system (up to 100 dB), and additional 30dB can be achieved with using ARU (automatic signal amplifier system).
- operation zone: 0-400 km
- noise level suppression rate: >40 dB
- Voltage provided by the power source:
380 V, 50 Hz
- Power consumption max 15 kW
- Frequency hopping during active jamming (with 5 MHz periodically)